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Myostatin is a protein that is considered an inhibitor of growth differentiation factor. It can be referred to by several different names, including Growth Factor 8, Differentiation Factor 8, GDF-8, GDF8, Myostatin, and MSTN. When it is used in conjunction with scientific study based on animal test subjects, it has the appearance of a white powder.
According to scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects, the primary purpose is to act as an inhibitor to myostatin.
Myostatin has been determined to be a secreted growth differentiation factor, meaning that it is part of a subfamily of proteins that are part of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions chiefly associated with development. Specifically, it is part of the TGF beta protein family that blocks the process of muscle differentiation and growth in myogenesis, which is the process in which muscular tissue is formed particularly during embryonic development. The peptide is chiefly produced via skeletal muscle cells. It also circulates throughout the blood and is known to act on muscle tissue by binding a cell-bound receptor that is known as the activin type II receptor.
When the peptide binds to the receptor, it results in the recruitment of a coreceptor known as either Alk-3 or Alk-4. This particular coreceptor in turn commences with a cell signaling cascade within the muscle, which includes the activation of transcription factors with the SMAD family, which are intracellular proteins that transducer extracellular signals from transforming growth factor beta ligands to the nucleus where they turn on downstream gene transcription. Specifically, the peptides are known to activate SMAD2 and SMAD3. These particular factors in turn initiate gene regulation that is specific to myostatin. When applied to myoblasts – that is, the impetus that creates the long, tubular cells that gradually develop into muscle fibers – the peptide inhibits their differentiation into mature fibers.
Additionally, scientific study that has been conducted on animal test subjects has determined that Myostatin also blocks Akt, a kinase that has been thought to be sufficient enough to cause muscle hypertrophy (that is, an increase in the size of skeletal muscle) partially via the activation of protein synthesis. As such, the peptide is thought to act by inhibiting muscle differentiation and by inhibiting Akt-induced protein synthesis. Furthermore, the peptide has been classified as a myokine. In other words, it is considered to be a peptide that is produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and are known to exert endocrine, paracrine, or autocrine effects.
Myostatin ’ Effects
Scientific study based on animal test subjects has determined that Myostatin HMP’s ability to inhibit the production of Myostatin lessens the regulatory effects on skeletal muscle growth. Because Myostatin is blocked, the muscles within an animal test subject are allowed to grow freely without being regulated to stop at a certain point within a certain time frame or interval. This process is further heightened when it is considered that the presence of Myostatin inhibits the production of Akt, and therefore its ability to promote muscle hypertrophy.
Myostatin and Muscle Growth
Because of the ability that Myostatin has in terms of inhibiting the production of myostatin, scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects has determined that the peptide could play a key factor into accelerating muscle growth. Because the regulatory processes that exist behind the presence of Myostatin, it is therorized that the presence of Myostatin and its ability to inhibit myostatin can cause an increase in muscle growth and muscle size to happen on a more efficient basis. Some studies have also theorized that the increase in muscle growth efficiency could have secondary benefits. For example, it is thought that the acceleration of muscle tissue growth could conceivably cause acceleration in the breakdown of adipose tissue (that is, body fat). The theory here is that the energy that is needed for muscle growth is turned into the muscular building blocks would be expended at a much faster rate. As such, it leaves little time for adipose tissue to develop. It would also cause any excess adipose tissue that had been built up over time to break down for purposes of energy conversion on a significantly faster rate, thus making it easier to break down any excess weight.
Myostatin and Muscular Dystrophy
A great amount of scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects in relation to the presence of Myostatin is its theoretical use as an aid in combating muscular dystrophy.
In essence, the term muscular dystrophy is an umbrella representation of a term that involves a host of muscular diseases that have been shown to weaken the muscoskeletal system and eventually slow down or even inhibit locomotion. It is primarily characterized by the progressive weakening of the skeletal muscle, defects in muscle proteins and the death of muscle tissue and muscle cells. The majority of the conditions that fall under this umbrella term are multiple symptom disorders that appear in the body systems including the heart, the nervous system, the endocrine glands, the gastrointestinal system, the brain, and the eyes.
The symptoms that exist behind muscular dystrophy come in varying ranges of severity. These symptoms range from drooping eyelids, muscle spasms, arrhythmias, and poor balance to frequent falls, scoliosis, the inability to walk, and progressive muscular wasting.
There are several types of diseases that fall under the muscular dystrophy umbrella. Some of these diseases include:
Each of these particular forms of muscular dystrophy comes with various issues that negatively impact the muscles in different ways. In some cases, the forms of muscular dystrophy will truncate a victim’s lifespan, sometimes dramatically. In other cases, the weakening of muscle tissue extends to vital organs such as the heart, which could tie in to the shortening of a victim’s overall lifespan.
Scientific studies that have been built on animal test subjects have looked at Myostatin as a potential combatant to muscular dystrophy and the various issues that it brings because of the way it functions. Due to the fact that the presence of the peptide works to block the expression of myostatin, it is thought that it could help make it easier for sufferers of muscular dystrophy to build and retain muscle mass and size. This would not necessarily lead to a significant amount of increased muscle mass. Rather, it would hypothetically be able to counteract the effects of muscle wasting that is main part of the disease, thus allowing the victim to experience a certain level of homeostasis. Ultimately, the research that is being conducted in regards to the peptide is that it could allow for a more effective means of disease management.
Negative Side Effects Unknown
Scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects have not been able to produce any concrete evidence as to whether or not there are any significant major side effects that flare up in conjunction with Myostatin. This is primarily due to the fact that the peptide itself is still in the research phase.
That being said, it has been noted through scientific study that some animal test subjects that have been used in conjunction with the peptide could potentially experience issues that are related to reproduction. There is also the hypothetical concern that the presence of the peptide could result in muscle growth that occurs too efficiently, which could lead to excessive muscle growth. It should also be noted that conditions that may otherwise be associated with a proliferation of muscular tissue, such as the inflammation and degeneration of existing muscle, have not been shown to improve.
There are also some studies that theorize the peptide’s ability to grow muscle could have a negative impact on tendons. Specifically, these studies indicate that the process of blocking the inhibitors may cause tendons to become small and brittle. It is further theorized that if the tendons become brittle, the animal test subject will be more susceptible to muscle based injuries. However, further research is needed to make this particular determination more concrete in nature.
Nowhere But a Restricted Environment
While plenty of research and study has been conducted regarding the overall functionality and mechanics, benefits, or side effects of Myostatin, the peptide is still solely intended for the use of scientific study at this point in time. Specifically, any research and the subsequent results of such research have solely been built on scientific study that has been based on animal test subjects. Because of this, it needs to be emphasized that any observations in relation to Myostatin overall functionality, mechanics, benefits, or side effects should be contained to a controlled environment like a medical research facility or a laboratory only.
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